Thursday, May 17, 2012

       Lollipops are lozenges type of oral solid dosage form with a short stick inserted into it which produces local effect in the mouth.
                 Need for invention:
l  Oral administration of pills, tablets and capsules may have difficult in swallowing due to undesirable taste.
l  Improper swallowing causes choking in pediatric & geriatrics.
l   Production process of them results in loss of medication and effect drug absorption and there by effecting dosage accuracy.
Medicated Lollipops have many applications as follows
Researches lead a tooth-friendly, ground breaking and enjoyable solution for the dental caries: i.e., Anti cavity lollipops.
Need for Discovery
  The mechanical treatment may be painful.
  In extreme cases, the teeth are removed.
  In young children, extraction may require heavy sedation.
                An UCLA microbiologist Dr.Wenyuan Shi, Ph.D., created an orange colored lollipop infused with extracts of Glycyrrhiza uralensis for the treatment of dental caries.
     It is an infectious communicable diseases that destroys tooth structure . Thus cavity is formed and a hole is developed.
                UCLA research, found that 700 bacterial kinds colonize the mouth which includes friendly as well as decay causing bacteria. Streptococcus mutants and   Lactobacilli are more active to cause tooth decay by production of lactic acid.
l     Drilling out the decayed material in the tooth.
l      Filling the resulting space with a filling material.
*     Oral hygiene
*     Fluoride Therapy
*     Natural saliva
*     Diet
*     Antibacterial Therapy(chlorhexidine)
n  Herbal extracts of Glycyrrhiza uralensis
n  Citric acid
n  Hydogenated starch Hydrolysate (HSH)
n  Natural orange flavours , colors FD & C , yellow#6, Acesulfame pottasium
                Mechanism of action:
Streptococcus mutants causes tooth decay by clumping together and sticking to the teeth where they produce a potent acid which aggressively breaks down tooth enamel as the liquorice  lollipops are antibacterial and inhibits the growth and clumping together, sticking to the teeth (Bacteriostatic & bactericidal)
    One lollipop in the morning after break fast…
    One lollipop before bed ….for 10 days no more cavities.
   15mg of liquorice powder  -  eliminates 99.9% of bacteria   with in 5-10 min.
Storage :
    Keep package sealed in a cool, dry place.
n  It stimulates saliva flow
n  Resist Streptococcus mutants
n  Long lasting than gum or candy
n  More easy to consumption compared to pills or capsules
n  Targeted to those having trouble in brushing
n  Effective Helicobacter which causes stomach ulcer
n  Effective against strep throat caused by Streptococci
n  Maximum dose is achieved in single dose.
 Adverse effects :
n  At high doses ,it causes : Electrolyte imbalance, Hypertension
                Administration of  Lidocaine as a lollipop is effective for
Endotracheal intubation, Bronchoscopy  and in Endoscopy .
 Gastro intestinal endoscopy:
     Upper endoscopy is to examine the lining of the upper part of GIT to evaluate Symptoms of
                                -  Abdominal pain ,
                                -  Nausea ,
                                  - Bleeding form the upper GIT.
                                - Inflammation ulcer ,
                              - Tumors of the esophagus ,
                               -   Stomach & duodenum .
Administration and withdrawal of lollipop
          A patient is given with lollipop & drug rapidly enters the patient’s blood stream as it is sucked.
          When a desired sedation is observed, physician can remove the lollipop.  By changing the placement of lollipop, drug release rate can be retarded.
            50g of white sugar-------3ml of liquid solution mixture  ++  300mg Lidocaine Hcl -----small cylindrical container--cooled & solidified--Plenge a plastic stick--Anesthetic lollipop
Advantages over other routes of medication
*      Lollipop had less gag reflex & is well tolerated
*      It eliminates the need for I.V Sedation
*      It has lower rates of adverse effects
*      Patient requires less recovery time
*      Safe and well tolerated topical anesthetic
*      Its effective and preferred in the  elderly
Pre –Anesthetic Lollipop
                                Clonidine  hydrochloride, an   α2 – adrenoceptor agonist, is an anti- hypertensive drug and introduced as Pre-anesthetic medication due to its Sedative and Analgesic properties. It was prepared into a lollipop through which Pediatric patients were  able to take easily.
n  Clonidine hydrochloride
n  Sucrose
n  Starch syrup
     Formulation : 2,3,4,&5g formulations of Clonidine lollipops                                          containing 10mg /g  of Clonidine Hcl.
     Storage: stored at 25’c until administration and was stable at least  2 months under room temperature.
Hemodynamic measurements :Systolic blood pressure (SBP)
                                                             Diastolic blood pressure (DBP)
                                                             Heart rate (HR)
n  Plasma Clonidine concentration of 0.3-0.8ng/ml would be sufficient to produce a satisfactory sedation in Pediatric surgery.
n  They can be used safely for pre-operative sedation in the patients aged  4-11years.
Analgesic lollipop
¢  A berry- flavored Fentanyl citrate lollipop or lozenge is useful for treating cancer pain in patients who are opiate tolerant
¢  It is also used to treat general pains such as back and neck pain other than cancer pain.
¢  Fentanyl is used for producing anesthesia and pain relief.
Control release lollipop
                A pharmaceutical preparation , a flavor essence, nontoxic coloring agents are mixed into  a  liquid silicon elastomeric and then cure hardened into the shape of lollipop for control releasing into a users mouth.
                since silicon is permeable, saliva in the mouth permeates  it at a controlled rate.
Lollipop dosage form in other treatments
  This dosage form can be given for the treatment of cough
  Lollipop dosage form can be given in hypertensive cases
  Lollipop dosage form can be given as antianginal agent
Draw backs in usage of lollipop therapy
v   patient may remove  lollipop if he doesn’t like it which  may lead to inadequate dose.
n  Lollipops are oral, solid , lozenges type of dosage form which shows its local effect in mouth.

n  It is ground breaking, tooth friendly and enjoyable solution to pediatrics and geriatrics who refused to take pills tablets and capsules orally.

n  This invention is directed to methods and composition for noninvasive administration of drugs having sedative, analgesic, anesthetic, and anti-cavity effects.

n  Lollipop takes an astonishing use in future as a special dosage form.


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